Decarbonising Heating and Cooling requires energy efficiency on both the demand and supply side of the heat sector.

Heat Savings can cost-effectively reduce the total heat demand in Europe by approximately 30-50%.

District Heating can capture excess heat, which is currently being wasted, and can replace fossil energy sources to heat EU cities. Based on cost and energy considerations, district heating should increase from today’s level of 10% up to 50% by 2050. Suitable urban areas for district heating are outlined in the mapping.

Individual Heat Pumps connect cheap renewable electricity production (such as wind and solar) with efficient renewable heat production (due to their COP). They should supply the majority of the heat demand in low heat-density areas, typically outside of the towns and cities.

Large heat pumps and other proven technologies can provide next generation district heating with renewable heat.

Energy System: Thermal storage is approximately 100 times cheaper than electricity storage, so introducing district heating and heat pumps will play a key role in accommodating larger penetrations of wind and solar electricity, in line with the Smart Energy System approach.